A Brazilian superfood and antioxidant-rich fruit used in anti-aging treatments. These berries are high in anthocyanins, a plant antioxidant linked to the ability to lower cholesterol levels in the blood stream.
Alpha-hydroxy Acids: Glycolic Lactic, Malic and Citric to name a few… are chemical compounds used for their exfoliation properties. They work by removing the “glue” that holds dead skin cells to the skin. This allows fresh skin cells to regenerate and reveal a bright, clean complexion underneath. AHA’s are great for rejuvenating ageing skin.
Consisting of polysaccharides, algae extract aids in moisture retention, blood circulation and has antioxidant properties. Also helps with skin elasticity.
Derived from Almonds, used in skincare products to soothe and moisten the skin. The high levels of vitamin E help nourish and protect the skin from environmental stressors. Great for fading dark spots and evening out skin tone.
This plant grows in tropical climates and has great moisturising and healing properties. The gel from this plant moisturises skin and makes a protective layer which helps speed up healing time of cuts, burns and irritation on the skin. Vitamin A, C, E along with amino acids, polysaccharids and minerals boost circulation and in turn stimulates skin cell renewal.
ANISE SEED EXTRACT
This liquorice scented extract is found in natural hair and facial cleansers and its major component is called anethol. It is used in saunas as it opens and detoxifies pores. An amazing ingredient that combats acne.
A substance that prevents oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is the loss of electrons in a molecule leaving it unstable and needing to “steal” it from somewhere else. Antioxidants provide spare electrons neutralising the damaging reaction.
Part of the flavonoid family, anthocyanin is a phytochemical which is a water soluble pigment that gives flowers and leaves their blue/red/purple colours.
APRICOT KERNEL OIL
Used in face creams and body lotions as it has great soothing properties and is non greasy. It is naturally anti-aging as it plumps fine lines while antioxidants prevent further damage. Also a great oil for sensitive skin types as it calms the skin and reduces redness.
This oil softens the skin and is rapidly absorbed without leaving a greasy residue. Packed with fatty acids, antioxidants and Vitamin E it effectively boosts the skins elasticity. Argan oil is great for sensitive, damaged and cracked skin as it is a natural anti-inflammatory and redness reducer. It also as an amazing scent!
This antioxidant can be found in certain algae, salmon, trout, crayfish and a keto-carotenoid with a red pigment. It has powerful UV-blocking properties that help the skin protect itself from sun damage. Astaxanthin has been found to be much stronger than vitamin C when fighting free radicals.
Contains antioxidants and essential mono-saturated fatty acids (oleic acid) that are great for protecting the skin from free radicals and environmental stress that in turn cause signs of ageing. It softens the skin and is a great treatment for acne, blackheads and eczema.
A revitalising treatment with the use of water that improves blood circulation, strengthens immune system, reduces stress and eases aches/pains.
A type of stone that keeps heat better than any other, is used for stone massage.
A great mood lifting and anxiety relieving plant with skin soothing properties. When used topically it tones and tightens skin.
An ancient remedy for healing irritated and inflamed skin, beeswax is naturally antiseptic and helps the skin lock in moisture by forming a barrier without blocking pores.
BETA HYDROXY ACID (BHA)
An exfoliating acid that removes dead skin and sebum buildup, there is only one BHA - salicylic acid. BHA is fat soluble which means that it can penetrate pimples and exfoliate acneic skin.
Part of the citrus family, bergamot is a great stress reliever and energiser. Topically applied it helps skin heal as it is a natural antibacterial.
A vital vitamin that is important for fat, protein, carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acid production and healthy cell growth. It aids in healthy hair, nail and skin synthesis and can be found in cosmetics because of these properties.
An ancient extract from chamomile that is used in skincare for its scent and antimicrobial properties.
A great ingredient with anti-inflammatory and calming properties. Very nourishing and packed with antioxidants, it can reduce signs of ageing.
The trademark name for Botulinum Toxin that is used in injections that paralyse face muscles and reduce wrinkles and fine lines.
Found is pineapple, this is a combination of enzymes that is important for healthy metabolism and protein digestion. In skincare bromelain is used in masks, scrubs and face creams due to its exfoliating properties.
This is a salicylic salt and brush treatment used to improve the texture of the skin.
A type of alcohol that attracts moisture from the environment which is used as a moisturising component in skincare. It helps formulations of makeup and certain skincare products glide onto the skin more easily.
CAPRYLIC CAPRIC TRIGLYCERIDES
Produced by the esterification of glycerol (plant sugars) with mixtures of caprylic (C:8) and capric (C:10) fatty acids from coconut/palm kernel oils. This particular combination and the esterification are responsible for the silky feel in skincare products.
A well known antiseptic when used topically, cardamom can also relieve pain and soothe sore, achy muscles.
CARROT SEED OIL
High in antioxidants, this oil is very nourishing for stressed and problematic skin as it is an antiseptic, disinfectant, anti-carcinogen and diuretic. It contains cell rejuvenating compounds that help strengthen the elasticity in older skin.
A class of digestive enzymes that are produced mainly by fungi and bacteria in order to break down the cell walls of plants. Supplements containing this enzyme can be beneficial to humans as they can increase nutrient absorption from edible plant sources.
A great ingredient for skin brightening as it soothes and improves skin texture over time. It is also rich in antioxidants that protects from free radicals.
A treatment that is applied to the skin in order to remove dead and damaged skin cells. This treatment minimises signs of ageing and improves skin texture.
A water soluble vitamin referred to as vitamin B and plays an important role in the structure of cell membranes and certain neurotransmitters. Studies have shown that populations with low availability of choline are at a higher risk of anxiety and depression. Supplements have the potential to reduce this risk and improve memory. Can be found in eggs, beef, chicken, liver.
A known mood lifter, this ingredient is an amazing sebum stabiliser for all skin types.
Mainly minerals and fine natural materials, clay is used in masks and skincare treatments to improve acne, increase blood circulation and help the skin retain moisture.
Speeds up the healing of acne, burns, cuts by increasing blood circulation to the skin.
COBALAMIN (VITAMIN B12)
Cobalt containing compounds are essential to immune system function, DNA synthesis, red blood cells and energy production. High concentrations of B12 are found in milk, eggs, liver and meat.
Famous for its moisturising properties, cocoa butter is a real saviour for dry skin types, feet and hands. Its reparative nature is a good choice for stretch mark reduction and the healing of tattoos.
A strong source of medium-chain triglycerides, coconut oil has a similar effect to mineral oil on the skin. Adding coconut oil to your diet has shown increased antioxidant content of the skin. A great conditioner for the hair and also works wonders as a make up remover.
COENZYME Q10 (CoQ10)
An antioxidant that naturally occurs in the skin, starts declining due to UV damage and age. CoQ10 can be found in various skincare products as it is added to protect skin cells and skin texture.
80% of the skin is made up of this protein which is what gives the skin its firmness. When collagen starts to break down it causes fine lines and wrinkles.
When a hair follicle or pore is blocked by sebum or dead skin.
Used in various skincare products, this ingredient helps speed wound healing, calms inflammation and redness and can also stimulate collagen production.
A type of acne that develops due to P. Acnes bacteria stuck inside pores causing severe inflammation and pus.
The area of the body from the base of the neck to the top of the chest.
A treatment used to exfoliate dead skin cells by a rotating abrasive tool.
The middle layer of the skin, between the epidermis and hypo-dermis, is a combination of oil glands, blood vessels and hair follicles. Collagen and elastin is found here as they support the skin’s elasticity and firmness.
A silicone based ingredient that gives the ‘slippery’ feeling in moisturisers and serums.
Found in small fish, this ingredient is said to have skin cell strengthening properties by protecting the cells from free radical damage.
A form of botulinum toxin that paralyses muscles to remove the signs of fine lines and wrinkles.
An ingredient used in self-tanning lotions and creams that causes the skin cells to change colour, giving a “tanned” effect.
Itchy, scaly and red patches that can appear anywhere on the body due to chemicals, fragrance and certain foods causing an allergic response.
A natural protein found in the dermis giving the skin its strength and ability to “bounce back” when stretched. Elastin starts to weaken when over exposed to the sun.
A mixture of ingredients and oils that softens the skin by increasing water levels in the epidermis.
A treatment involving protein enzymes of alpha hydroxy acids that work by dissolving dead skin cells on the surface of the skin revealing a balanced, even texture and tone. Enzyme peels are usually applied in mask form and washed off after a recommended amount of time.
Top layer of the skin which is also the most thin. This is where skin cell renewal takes place and is also responsible for
Active plant oils extracted from plants and herbs, all with different effects on the human body.
The process where dead skin cells are removed from the skin, revealing fresh and young skin.
Used for centuries, eucalyptus is a natural anti-viral and anti-inflammatory. It is a great insect repellant and soothes sore muscles.
An antioxidant derived from plants, this ingredient aids stabilise vitamin C and E in skincare products and also helps the skin reduce sun damage.
A great plant based ingredient that tones down redness and combats free radicals.
A type of cell that is found in connective tissue such as the dermis and are responsible for the production of collagen and elastin
A type of antioxidant phytochemical found in dark pigmented fruits and vegetables.
Used by cosmetics companies when listing “secret ingredients” that they do not wish to reveal on the label. It is a generic term for certain compounds and is one of the top reasons for allergic reactions in skincare products.
When a reactive oxygen steals electrons from proteins, DNA and cell membranes it can damage tissue and cause ageing, fine lines and much harsher complications.
An ancient ingredient with superb anti-ageing properties as it helps reduce UV damage.
This antioxidant is an anti-inflammatory ingredient used for relieving arthritis. When used in cosmetics it can reduce pigmentation and speed up hyaluronic acid production in the skin.
This ingredient is used in cosmetics as it pulls moisture from the atmosphere and hydrates the skin.
An AHA derived from sugarcane, this ingredient is used in exfoliation as it unglues dead skin cells from pores leaving a radiant complexion.
Goji berries are full of antioxidants, zinc and essential fatty acids. Due to their high antioxidant content they are said to slow down ageing and improve digestion.
Full of antioxidants, this extract is known for its protective and reparative qualities that improve skin texture due to its ability to shield agains UV damage.
Containing high amounts of fatty acids and antioxidants, grape-seed oil is used in cosmetics due to its hydrating and age reversing properties.
A well known antioxidant rich ingredient that has a spectrum of functions including anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and protection. Green tea has a high content of polyphenols which are anticancer and antiviral.
This oil is a good hormone balancer and mood lifter. In skincare it is used for balancing sebum production and as a fragrance.
Ginger stimulates blood circulation and healthy digestion which can improve problematic skin from within. It is also an energiser and an antidepressant.
High content of vitamin C, it provides antioxidant protection to the skin and gently exfoliates. When eaten it stimulates metabolism which results in healthy skin, body and mind!
This is a broad-spectrum formulation of sun protection containing avobenzone and oxybenzone. This formulation stops avobenzone from degenerating as it is mixed with oxybenzone.
Hormones are chemicals found in our bodies that regulate many different processes and reactions such as growth, emotions and metabolism. Hormonal changes occur constantly in the body and can effect the skins texture, sebum production and ageing.
A type of moisturising ingredient that attracts moisture from the atmosphere to the skin.
This ingredient is a sugar found in the skin and it allows moisture content to be increased and prevents water loss. It is found in many cosmetics as it can hold up to 1000 x its weight in water.
An ingredient used in skincare and treatments that combat pigmentation which inhibit the production of pigment in dark spots.
This is the name for dark spots, pigmentation and age spots that are often the result of sun exposure, scarring and hormonal changes.
A statement on cosmetics used to describe if a product is shown not to cause allergic reactions. These tests should be conducted by a third party laboratory. This term is loosely used in cosmetics and should be referenced with the ingredients inside the product.
The deepest layer of the skin containing fatty tissue, sweat glands and collagen cells. Its main role is to protect the inner parts of the body and retain heat.
A synthetic antioxidant that is great at reducing inflammation, sun damage and hyperpigmentation. This ingredient and antioxidant can only be found in certain products by Elizabeth Arden.
ILLICIUM VERUM FRUIT EXTRACT
Knowns as Anise Extract this ingredient has amazing antiseptic properties and helps tone down redness, acne and protects stressed skin.
Impurities are collections of dirt and pollutants that get stuck on or under the skin. Build-up of impurities cause clogged pores, a dull complexion, uneven skin tone and breakouts. Impurities that are left un-cleansed usually cause the skin to have more breakouts.
INCIDENTAL SUN EXPOSURE
When the skin is overexposed to the sun during daily activities. Activities such as being outside for short periods of time without sun protection cause incidental sun exposure.
Very soothing for all skin types, jasmine oil is a superb scar reducer and mood lifter.
Produced from the seed of the Jojoba plant, it is a great oil that is very similar to the skins own sebum. It can penetrate the skin and hydrate without clogging pores.
A great ingredient for problematic skin such as psoriasis, eczema and acne as it soothes and takes down inflammation. As an essential oil it is a natural stress reducer.
A trademarked name of a liquid gel consisting of hyaluronic acid that is injected into the face, lips and wrinkles for a plumping effect.
A mineral similar to clay that is a fantastic oil absorber and reduces shine.
An ingredient found in anti-ageing products that encourages cell division. It is a plant based compound that is nourishing and hydrating to the skin.
Red bumps on arms and legs that flair up when the hair folic becomes plugged. This condition is said to be genetic and can be relieved by the use of lactic acid creams.
A dominant protein in our skin that is responsible for making hair, nails and the top layer of skin.
These are the cells that produce the keratin protein which is the main component of the epidermis.
A popular product in Japan, this skin lightening product is capable of minimising the production of melanin. It can also be an irritant when used in high concentrations.
An alpha hydroxy acid used to exfoliate dead skin cells from the skins surface. It is derived from fermented milk and is gentle enough to use on sensitive skin types.
A sea algae used to nourish skin and balance oil production.
Laser can be used for different types of skin conditions such as pigmentation, wrinkles, tattoos, spider veins and hair removal. It is intense and concentrated beams of colors of light that is targeted at the specific concern.
This treatment is a heat pulse delivery below the epidermis which has amazing collagen stimulating properties. It reduces fine lines and takes down redness.
Used in aromatherapy, lavendar oil is relaxing and mood lifting. Great as a sleeping aid (few drops on your pillow at night). Do not use this on your face as it can be too unstable and cause sensitivity over time.
Energising and uplifting, lemon oil is used as a scent agent in skincare however direct contact on skin can cause irritation.
When used in skincare it is usually found in foot creams and body lotions as it tones, tightens and deodorises.It has an uplifting scent and is also an amazing jet-lag reducer.
Calming and soothing for the skin, this ingredient helps reduce puffiness and can take down redness and inflammation.
Derived from liquorice extract this molecule is amazing for treating irritated and inflamed skin and also aids in oil balance. This is a great ingredient to treat acne and redness.
Used in sport creams and lotions to reduce muscle and joint pain. It is said to minimise cellulite.
Lipids are naturally occurring hydrophobic compounds. Lipids are found in our sebum and also added to moisturisers which generate a protective barrier for our skin as it retains moisture. As moisture is kept intact wit the skin it becomes softer and more elastic.
Found in tomatoes, carrots and other red pigmented foods, this is a powerful antioxidant that is famous for protecting the skin from sun damage.
Melanin is produced at the base of the epidermis and is a pigment that gives the skin its color. Melanin is stimulated by your genetics, hormone levels and sun exposure. The darker your skin is, the more melanin it contains.
The cells in your skin that produce melanin.
A type of skin cancer - this nasty guy develops in the pigment producing cells (melanocytes). Genetic and immune disorders cause a greater risk of this developing but excessive sun exposure and tanning beds have proved to play a part in the development of skin cancers.
This ingredient stimulates skin cell renewal and calms the skin. It is a natural anti-fungal, antidepressant and a fever reducer.
The most thin layer of your skin that protects against loss of moisture.
A cooling ingredient derived from mint pants, menthol is usually used in toners and shaving gels. It can relieve minor inflammation and itchiness.
A sunscreen ingredient that is an effective chemical filter for protecting the skin from UVA when combined with other ingredients.
An exfoliation treatment used by dermatologists that removes the top layer of the skin. The top layer is usually dead and by the help of fine aluminum crystals and a vacuum wand it eliminates the build-up of sebum, dirt and dead skin.
Used for many years for its healing properties, it softens chapped skin and acts as a natural antibacterial. Used in cosmetics for its soothing properties and also its fragrance.
NATURAL MOISTURISING FACTOR (NMF)
NMF is a combination of amino acids working in skin cells that retain moisture. Your NMF level decides if your skin is “Oily” or “Dry”. Normally, skin with lower NMF is considered dry but NMF can be decreased by environmental factor such as sun exposure, environment and the use of wrong products. The skin produces more NMF if it is exposed to a dry environment and less if it is in a more humid environment.
Used a lot in skincare as a calming scent and fragrance.
Products that do not cause acne.
A skin type that has a correct balance of moisture and oil.
Stimulates blood circulation and is great for people that do a lot of sport and suffer from achy muscles.
Over production of sebum in the dermis causes this skin type. It can be due to a hormonal imbalance, a change of climate, a change of diet. Usually people with this skin type are prone to break outs and have larger pores.
Used for centuries to help strengthen skin, hair, nails, olive oil contains vitamins, minerals and its a natural sunscreen. Can be comedogenic so do not use if you suffer from acne and reactive skin.
OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS
Can be found in oily fish, nuts and olive oil to name a few, omega-3 maintain the function of cell membranes and help cells take in nutrients from food. Having a correct amount of omega-3 aids with having supple and hydrated skin.
High in antioxidants including vitamin C, orange is said to be a great antiseptic and antibacterial remedy however it is used as a scent agent in skincare and direct contact on skin can cause irritation and sensitivity.
ORANGE PEEL EXTRACT
In skincare this ingredient is used as a colorant and mild fragrance. Can cause skin irritation and sensitivity.
An ingredient used in sunscreen that absorbs UVB rays.
PA (Protection UVA)
A system used in different countries for consumers to understand the amount of UVA protection in sunscreen. PA+ (low UVA protection), PA+++ (high UVA protection).
A great ingredient for balancing sebum production on the skin. It tightens tissue and is a gentle antiseptic.
A B vitamin that is great at strengthening hair and skin.
Parabens are a wide range of preservatives used to protect products from bacterial and fungal growth. Today many skincare companies are using other preservatives due to the controversies of paraben use. However in our opinion parabens are not as bad as the skincare industry claims.
Found in bath and face products, it gently cleanses and moisturises the skin.
Used in skincare for its antiseptic and antibacterial properties. It is a powerful antioxidant that protects against free radicals and is used a lot as a fragrance.
Found in body and facial cleansers as peppermint has great skin cell renewal properties. It also stimulates circulation due to its cooling effect. The scent is mood lifting.
Peptides are amino acids that make up peptide binds which create the proteins that are responsible for nail, skin and hair health.
pH is a measurement of acid/base in a substance. A neutral pH value is 7.0 (water), substances with a lower pH are acids and substances with a higher pH are bases.
Derived from apples, this ingredient strengthens the activeness of other skincare ingredients that can reduce signs of sun damage.
Preservatives called plasticisers that are found in certain nail polishes giving them their anti crack properties. Phalates are controversial as recent studies have shown that they can cause endocrine disruption.
Derived from plants and nuts, these compounds are great for the skin and tone down redness, fight free radicals and support the skins wellbeing.
PLANT STEM CELLS
A living part of a plant with unspecialised cells that have the ability to stimulate growth of any part of the tissue. Evidence for plant stem cells is vague in terms of skincare and the effects on the skin.
Pomegranate extract is a great moisturiser and antioxidant that protects from free radicals and sun damage.
The openings in the skin where sweat and sebum pass. Pores can become clogged with excess sebum or dirt and can cause irritation.
A chronic irritation of the skin that causes scaling, inflammation, itchiness and red patches.
Found in hair care products for dry and damaged hair. It has a spongy and moisturising texture that has reparative properties.
Hyaluronic acid based fillers used by doctors to replace lost volume of the skin.
A name for Vitamin A used in skincare. When retinol and other retinoids come into contact with skin, enzymes in the body convert the retinol into retinoic acid, the active form of vitamin A. Retinoid acid stimulates skin cell turn over making way for new skin cells.
Derived from Vitamin A, this ingredient is used in anti-ageing products that stimulate skin cell turn over. When bought in-store, 1% is the maximum amount allowed by the FDA.
A great ingredient that has anti cancer properties, regulates sebum production, stimulates skin cell renewal and aids in skin elasticity. It helps heal wounds quicker and is amazing at rejuvenating dry and dull skin.
This ingredient is produced by bees and when applied topically it aids in rejuvenating the skin while keeping it soft and supple. It has a high content of amino acids and b vitamins.
A famous beta hydroxy acid that removes excess sebum and dead skin cells from the skins surface. It is used in certain moisturisers, masks, cleansers and is a great treatment of acne-prone and oily skin.
Strong hydrating properties that protect the skin from free radicals and create a protective layer which prevents water loss.
Used to reduce keloid scarring and pigmentation, very nourishing leaves the skin soft and supple. Also used as a fragrance due to its calming properties.
SEA BUCKTHORN OIL
Strengthens the cell membrane, rapidly reduces inflammation and heals the skin. Great for burns, cuts and rashes and as an anti-ageing ingredient.
Thickens facial and body creams as its texture is very moisturising.
A skincare product with high concentrations of active ingredients.
Derived from sesame seeds - its content of linoleum acid is a great anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. Rich in zinc which aids elasticity, vitamin E nourishes and protects. Sesame oil is also a natural sunscreen and a natural cell detoxifier.
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE
Used in shampoos as a foaming agent, this ingredient is used to remove oil build-up. More and more companies are selling sulfate-free haircare as newer, gentler ingredients are just as effective.
SODIUM LAURYL LACTYLATE
A salt derived from milk or coconut oil, this ingredient is used as an emulsifier and is used in cosmetics due to its ability to penetrate skin, provide hydration, enhance delivery of actives and extend fragrance release. Also an anti-bacterial so is great for people fighting acne.
An ingredient that is protein rich, soy extract is used as a mild skin brightener.
Antispasmodic properties that are great for achy muscles and period cramps. Its antiseptic properties are due to menthol, myrcene, carophyllene that all protect wounds from further infection and seed up healing. Spearmint oil is a great ingredient for oily skin type as it removes excess sebum without drying the skin.
A type of fat that is used for its binding properties in skincare products.
SUGAR CANE EXTRACT
Derived from sugar cane, usually made into glycol acid, an AHA - a natural exfoliant which can brighten the skin and even out skin tone.
SUGAR MAPLE EXTRACT
Works as a natural aha, can be found in various cosmetics as an exfoliant which aids in cell reparation and minimising effects of free radicals.
SWEET ALMOND OIL
Comes only from edible almonds - high vitamin a content, helps the skin cell turnover, which in turn is great for acne and acne scarring. Rich in Vitamin E, and zinc which hydrates and protects the skin from oxidative damage.
SWEET ORANGE OIL
Derived from outer peel of orange it is added to many skincare products as it increases ability to absorb Vitamin C, strengthens collagen production and increases blood flow to the dermis. Limonene is a powerful antioxidant that is found in sweet orange oil and is great at combating free radicals and protecting the skin from oxidative stress.
A magnesium silicate mineral that is naturally occurring, is used in face powdered and dry shampoos so its oil absorbing properties.
Derived from native tree in Polynesia, this oil contains glyco-lipids, phospholipids and is a great skin conditioner.
This antioxidant is a polyphenol and is used for its protection against free radicals in skincare.
TETRASODIUM GLUTAMATE DIACETATE
A multi-purpose clear liquid that is used as a preservative booster. It keeps the texture and stability of a product intact.
An oil soluble, white powder that is widely used as a pigment in cosmetics.
The scientific name for vitamin E, this is a potent antioxidant with moisturising, healing and protective properties.
Derived from vitamin E, this molecule is a common vitamin supplement. It is great at protecting the skin from environmental stress and fights free radicals.
Surfactant and cleansing agent.
Used in cosmetics a a thickener and emulsion stabiliser.
Widely used as bulking agent, colourant in make up and as a sunscreen.